Education structure of schools in India

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Since independence and even before that period the importance of education is very much evident in India. It can be said that many people used to throng abroad universities like Harvard and Cambridge and earn a niche for themselves instantly.

Continuing the same roots, let’s see the prime roots which used to and still produce such laureates.

Yes, its none other than the education structure of schools in India which is the real the root cause for influencing and strengthening the students as far as their future growth in the field of education is concerned.

Lets go to the basics and track out the structure of schools India follows

There are principally four basic stages of schools in India, primary, upper primary, secondary and higher secondary or the high school.

Overall on an average, the schooling continues in India for 12 years from class 1 to class 12th (10+2).

The government in India is committed for providing the elementary education for all (Primary and upper primary) aged between 6-14 years of age.

However, upper primary and secondary school learners aged eleven to fifteen is planned into classes six through ten, and higher secondary school students ages sixteen through seventeen are enrolling in classes eleven through twelve. In some places there is a notion called middle/upper primary schools for class six to eight.

Higher Education in India provides an occasion to focus in a field and includes technical schools (such as the Indian Institutes of Technology), colleges, and universities.

The main types of schools controlled in India are,

• The state government controlled schools under which a large chunk of students are enrolled

• The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), New Delhi • The Council For Indian School Certificate Examinations (ICSE), New Delhi

• National Open School

• International Schools

Now, lets have a detailed look at each of the stages of schooling In India school scenario

Preliminary Education- In India, the concept of preliminary education dates back to history pages and its not a fundamental right of the students, with a very less percentage of them receiving education under the forum concerned.

Typically, the students under the same are LKG, UKG, students aged between 2-1/2 and 3.

However, the facilities under this section were not better until some prominent players entered the scene. Pivotal amongst are Kid zee schools, Shamrock preschools. But, these good facility providers cover a very few small chunk of population.

Nevertheless, the number of students enrolling for preliminary education program in India is as low as 11.22%!

Elementary Education- Students of class 1 to 5th basically forms this crust. As huge has 82% of the students have been observed enrolling for the same.

Higher Education- Higher education forms the rest of the education scene in India

Accredited Universities- Accredited universities are also in India that offers college degrees once students complete school education in different traditional and professional streams.

Residential schools- In order to make the students a polished individual in the ensuing future, the …

Thailand – Political Situation Update

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Having lived in Thailand for the last two years I have experienced their military coup of 2006 as well and their path back to democracy. The coup was bloodless and the only person I am aware of getting hurt was a taxi driver who rammed a tank park in the street because he was frustrated with it being in his way. The Thai people’s path back to democracy was well planned and quite structured by the military who was governing Thailand after the coup. Initially a new constitution was written that afforded more protection against governmental abuses. This constitution was accepted by the Thai people through a referendum vote. After accepting this constitution, the people then had a general election where the same ruling party (renamed as the PPP Party) that was ousted by the coups was voted back in. This party was voted back in for several reasons; one being the people living outside of Bangkok was enamored with the promises of money through governmental programs and tax cuts. The second reason was, as it turns out, there was vote buying, which we found this out in a recent conviction of the leading party’s leader of voting fraud.

The current Prime Minister Samak Sundaravej has made some huge political blunders both internally and internationally such as bringing Thailand close to fighting with Cambodia over the border line surrounding the Preah Vihear temple which was settled in 1962 by the World Court. The Thai People always felt cheated about this and PM Samak had “solved” the problem in a one day meeting with the Cambodian leader about six months ago. There has been a military build up on the border near this temple in the last few months…

So … between the conviction and some actions and decisions that are not particularly cared for by the general population many Thai People are not happy with the current Prime Minister. The opposition party is staging protests and has been for the past 3 or more months (as of early September 2008). Peaceful protesting is a healthy expression of democracy, when the government allows people to express themselves in the open. The protests became unhealthy last week. The protesters were met with a rival group of “anti”-protesters supporting the current government. The two groups clashed and resulted in a death and over 40 injured people. The clash led to a “state of emergency” declaration by the government causing concern for the situation throughout the world.

But to put things into perspective, Thailand is still a very peaceful place to live, for everyone. The clash of political groups was an isolated event and seems to be remaining just that. Thai people should be commended for not allowing the situation to get out of control and allowing the violence to escalate. The emergency declaration, however, is worrying people wishing to visit and therefore hurting the economic situation here by impacting tourism. So we are all waiting to the politicians to solve their conflicts so …

Data Protection Laws of India

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In the recent years India has emerged as one of the preferred destinations for offshore business outsourcing. Financial services, educational services, legal services, banking services, healthcare services, marketing services and telecommunication services . The factors that have turned India into one of the hotspots for offshore outsourcing are the educated and unemployed masses, enterprising nature of Indians who have excellent spoken English skills and relatively cheap labour.

In June 2005, one BPO was in the eye of the storm when one of its employees sold personal data belonging to a large number of British nationals to an undercover reporter from the British tabloid ‘The Sun’. The incident sparked off a debate among the offshore industry circles, media and the legal world as to how safe foreign data is in Indian hands. The discussions were also veered towards the need for some kind of protection for personal data in India which is absent currently.

Data Protection Issues have time and again raised concern in the authorities about the cyber extortion, privacy, confidentiality, data protection and national security. With the increasing penetration in the online usage of more and more people towards internet, e-banking, e-shopping etc. the concerns of data protection and related issues are growing day by day.

Privacy is closely connected to Data Protection. An individual’s data like his name address, telephone numbers, profession, family, choices, etc. are often available at various places like schools, colleges, banks, directories, surveys and on various web sites.

Passing on such information to interested parties can lead to intrusion in privacy like incessant marketing calls.

It would be a misnomer to say that India does not have ‘data protection’ legislation at all.

This is factually wrong. The fact is that there exists data protection legislation in India.

The subject matter of data protection and privacy has been dealt within the Information

Technology Act, 2000 but not in an exclusive manner.

Data protection is not a subject in any of the three lists in Schedule VII of the

Constitution of India. But Entry 97 of List 1 states: “any other matter not enumerated in

List II and List III …….” Thus only the Indian Parliament is competent to legislate on

data protection since it can be interpreted as any other matter not enumerated in List II

and List III.

Data protection is, thus, a Central subject and only the Central Government is competent

to frame legislations on issues dealing with data protection. In fact, the Information

Technology Act, 2000,and the Indian Copyright Act, 1957 , enacted by the Indian Parliament are the main legislations in this field, which contains provisions on data protection. There is also a proposed Personal Data Protection Bill, 2006, which deals with the protection of personal data.


The Indian Parliament enacted an Act called the Information Technology Act, 2000. It

received the assent of the President on the 9th June, 2000 and is effective from 17th October, 2000. This Act is based on the Resolution A/RES/51/162 …