Land & Property Law in Thailand

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Thailand is an incredible country much famed for its serenity and rich culture. In fact, the country is much popular among the tourists, and is now the number one tourist spot in South-East Asia. With its mind blowing scenery, stupendous beaches, idyllic tropical islands, and a myriad of attractions covering palaces, ancient shrines, interesting museums, historic monuments, and places of cultural significance, Thailand has been drawing holidaymakers from across the world per year.

Of which many of the people, especially Europeans and Americans, settle down here permanently, inspired by the incredibility of the place. Some westerns have even chosen certain destinations in Thailand such as Koh Samui, Pattaya, and Phuket, to spend their retirement life.

Factors such as exceptional low prices and excellent investment potential have also lured large number of people to invest in the country’s property market. All these have led to increased demand for property in Thailand. Property market in Thailand is highly active, with a number of options, ranging from land and houses to condominiums, villas, and serviced apartments. Discussed further in this article are laws as well as procedures involved in connection with owning a property in Thailand.

The laws with regard to owning a property in the country is quite confusing. A foreigner cannot easily own a property in Thailand. In other words, Thai law strictly prohibits a foreigner to own a freehold land in the country. However, there are certain loopholes in the law regarding this issue. A foreigner can own a land or property in the country through a number of ways such as land leases, company ownership, investments, and above all, through Thai spouse.

Land Leases – Although Thai law prohibits land ownership rights to people, foreigners are allowed to hold 100% interest in a land lease in the country. In other words, land lease is one of the simplest as well as straightforward options for a foreigner to acquire a property in Thailand. According to the Thai lease law, a maximum of 30-year lease year is provided, and that too with the option to renew the lease for an additional period of 30 years.

Additionally, lands for commercial as well as industrial purposes could be leased up to a period of 50 years, with options for further extension of lease. All kinds of land lease must be registered with the Land Development. However, it is not required to register leases up to three years. It has been made mandatory to register any kind of lease renewal that has been agreed upon with the land owners at the local land office.

Company Ownership – Registered companies in Thailand with majority Thai ownership could buy land in Thailand. In general, only Thai majority companies are allowed to own land in the country. However, in certain instances, the Board of Investment (BOI) allows a foreign registered company registered in the country to own a land for a short period of time.

Thai Spouse – A Thai wife of a foreigner is allowed to …

Local Councils: A pivotal but disappointing role in Sierra Leone’s socio-political and economic development debate

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Local government structure in Sierra Leone essentially consists of a system of 19 elected councils, broken down into 5 city councils (Freetown, Bo, Kenema, Koidu-New Sembehun and Makeni); the municipality of Bonthe and 13 district councils consisting of the 12 districts   (Pujehun, Bo, Moyamba, Bonthe, Kenema, Kailahun, Kono, Tonkolili, Bombali, Port Loko, Kambia, Koinadugu) and the western area rural district.

While researching the role and effectiveness of these local councils since their reintroduction by the Tejan-Kabbah administration in 2004, I have been especially struck by the political power paradigm shift that has occurred in local government administration, development, financing and delivery of devolved services in Sierra Leone. For while there is understandably much emphasis on the central government’s role and responsibility for nationwide development, it is worth noting that enactment of the Local Government Act, 2004 largely subordinated the central government and Paramount Chiefs authority and powers to the supremacy of local councils for virtually all development activities in the relevant council localities.

In the case of paramount chiefs, their marginal role in the affairs of the council is reflected in their membership of the councils. The Local Government Act clearly stipulated the number of their membership in the various councils, as for example Pujehun district can only have 2 paramount chief representatives in the council and in the case of Bo district only 3 paramount chief members can be represented in the Bo district council.

It is thus the responsibility of the government, opposition political parties, civil society and especially the requisite local government entities to ensure that the decentralization model as enshrined in the constitution and laws of our country are upheld and not allowed to be subjugated to the centralized and non-representative system that operated during the Siaka Stevens era.

I am however especially concerned, as the local councils and the various majority political parties they represent, do not appear to be adequately cognizant of their legal and political supremacy role, especially in spearheading development and governance  within their various localities, and seem to be ceding to the central government and paramount chiefs , though unconstitutionally their powers. This brings to mind the recent Kenema City Council’s decision to terminate the services of the chief Administrator and the Procurement Officer and the apparent decision by the Vice-President, Chief Sam Sumana to inappropriately and unconstitutionally instruct the Resident Minister, East to have the Council reinstate the sacked council employees. Part V1 Section 32 (2) of the Local Government Act, 2004 clearly states that “…….a local council need not consult …in respect of the appointment of staff….”.

The office of the vice-president has no constitutional authority to supervise the local councils as erroneously asserted by Kenema district APC and PMDC party Chairmen in their protest letter of December 29, 2009. The appropriate constitutional body is the Local Government Service Commission, whose composition does not include the vice president, and whose members according to section 36(2) “shall be appointed by the President with the approval of Parliament”. It is my …

8 Reasons Why (n) Obama is a Socialist

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(n)Obama is a raving, race baiting populist. His record, statements, writings and church activities say so. The man is the most seriously under-qualified nominee for President in the entire history of the United States. Underachievers like Grover Cleveland or the abysmal Herbert Hoover look majestic when compared to the community organiser who believes there are 57 US states. The collective orgasmic expostulations around the little man with the big ears hides the relevant and important fact that (n)Obama is the worst possible leader imaginable – worse even than the stupidest man in US history, that obscene anti-semite dimwit Jimmy Carter. The Americans might as well elect Mickey Mouse to lead them than (n)Obama. At least Mickey is honest.

(n)Obama is a classic economic populist, cultural marxist and a raging ‘progressive’ liberal [an oxymoron with the emphasis on the moron]. Not only is (n)Obama the most left-wing Senator in the US Senate based on his voting record, but possesses the most radical ideas garnered from his supporters about redistribution, government’s role to ‘unite’ society, and genuflection to the global ‘community’ [whatever that means]. (n)Obama is simply the most dangerous demagogue to come forward in US politics since Huey Long.

Long was a nationalist-populist during a period of history when authoritarian rule was deemed ‘progressive’. So-called intellectuals supported the twin absurdities of corporate fascism and communism. State management was deemed moral, and community feeling and extremist nationalist ideology in which the individual was submerged into the whole was portrayed as necessary, spiritual and mandatory. Long’s program of populist race baiting; ecomomic management and the creation of ‘us versus them’ rhetoric was part of a troubled episode in which freedom and clear thinking were replaced by blind emotion and state created enthusiasm.

(n)Obama exhibits much of the same penchant for simplistic formulae, state organised parades and speeches; and ego-centricity as any tin horn dictator, populist or Roman senatorial demagogue. (n)Obama is just a pale version of what has long gone on in politics – the pandering to the populist mass by promising some set of nonsense to mask what is really at issue – the aggrandizement of state power. Ironicially the very lemmings and automata who support the little man with no experience, and who say that only they and he have the right ideas, programs and beliefs, are the same small people who cry about freedom, rights and individualism. Their statist program of course would result in the exact opposite of what they weep so emotionally about.

(n)Obama’s socialist agenda:

1. Taxes: The little Black messiah would enact the largest tax increase in US history. This would completely wipe out an already weak US economy and cause capital flight from the US, and from the US dollar, to overseas. There would truly be a deep and profound US economic recession.

2. Trade: Given that (n)Obama’s base are union and government workers, trade restrictions and an increase in barriers would be mandatory. Trade intra-NAFTA and with China would be put at risk. The …

Combating Drug Menace: The Efforts of Punjab Government

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Social media and traditional media have been very vocal about the recent controversy over Bollywood film, “Udta Punjab” which highlights the issue of drug addiction in Punjab. Given that the drug problem in Punjab is important, what media doesn’t show is the efforts done by the state government to counter this painstaking issue once and for all.  Main features of government efforts have been the counselling service from qualified psychiatrists, de-addiction centers for addicts, yoga therapy, etc. Red Cross has also opened its state branch which has been supporting state government’s efforts. Another feature has been the family counselling provided to impress upon on the need of family support in battling drug addiction. Private de-addiction centers and NGOs have been doing their part of the job along with the government to raise awareness against drug abuse and addiction.


The extent of this problem has been quantified by a recent study done by National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre (NDDTC) at AIIMS. According to the study, there are 123,000 heroin-consuming people among the population of 27.7 million. Around 7,500 crore Rs. worth of opioids has been consumed every year in Punjab. The state government has also taken the problem at utmost priority and in recent years have made large strides in combating drug menace by arresting the big time drug peddlers, small drug offenders, and typical addicts.


Narco-terrorism is another feature that has entered this region. Groups from neighbouring countries have been trying to spread this drug epidemic in Punjab to make youth into addicts. Punjab lies in proximity to nations like Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran, which produces and sells largest amount of heroin in the world. The state government has been working with Central government and security forces to fight this new type of terrorism. They are also trying to contain this problem from propagating deeper in India.


All these efforts have been subsided by political parties like AAP and Congress, which are busy scoring political points against the ruling SAD government. In this complete lack of responsibility, both opposition parties have been showing Punjabi youth in a bad light. They also have ruined Punjab’s image. In this hour of need, both parties have forgotten their role and responsibility in their pursuit to make electoral gains.


It’s now up to the electorates of Punjab to decide what they want to choose – a government fighting how-drugs-in-punjab-is-a-misleading-stat or a government which maligned the very state it wanted to rule. …

Key Witnesses to Testify in the Carona Corruption Trail

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Key witnesses to testify in the Carona corruption trail


Nov 2, 2008 at 5:30 PM PST

 Former Assistant Sheriff George Jaramillo and his sister-in-law Erica Lynne Hill and controversial attorney Joseph Cavallo, who defended Gregory Haidl against sexual-assault charges, and was also indicted by the Orange County grand jury on conspiracy charges involving a scheme referring clients to bail bondsmen.

All three are expected to be called as explosive witnesses this week in the former Orange County Sheriff Mike Carona’s corruption trail being heard at the Federal District Court in the Ronald Reagan Federal building in downtown Santa Ana California.  Jaramillo a one-time close friend of Carona, has pleaded guilty in the case. In the plea, Jaramillo admitted that he had collected cash and gifts worth about $45,000 and had filed false income tax returns concealing the income.

The former assistant sheriff secretly pleaded guilty in March to federal tax evasion and mail fraud, and agreed to cooperate in a growing federal investigation of corruption in the Orange County Sheriff’s Department, according to the plea agreement.

Jaramillo, who was once promised by Carona to be the front-runner as the sheriff would resign for another post would help Jaramillo to succeed Orange County Sheriff Mike Carona. But has since agreed to cooperate fully with investigations underway by the U.S. Attorney’s Office, the FBI and the IRS, according to the deal he signed in March.

Federal investigators said “were asking questions about Carona’s activities since he was elected sheriff.” Investigators asked Jaramillo specifically about “gifts and monies” Carona had received.

Jaramillo and prosecutors reached the plea agreement some time ago. It was sealed while investigators continued to pursue the case against Carona but was made public at his arraignment.

Jaramillo and his sister-in-law were arrested for alleged fraud, misappropriation of government funds and felony conflicts of interest. Both appeared before Orange County Superior Court Judge Marc Kelly for their arraignments.

Jaramillo, 44, was charged with six felony counts of misappropriating government funds and four misdemeanor counts of conflicts of interest, while Hill, 33, faced three felony counts for misappropriating government funds. Hill and Jaramillo had pleaded not guilty to all charges. Later both cut deals with the state and the U.S. Attorneys office and Jaramillo plead guilty in state court. Hill along with Jaramillo testified before an Orange County Grand Jury.    

Following Hills grand jury testimony and the DA’s decision to drop the charges against her, Hill thought it was over and that what she said would be sealed and she could get on with her life. Then more news reports come out, and the spotlight was back on her. Hill complained, “I didn’t ask for this. I want it to go away, but I’m very tired of being kicked around.” The testimony that Hill gave to the grand jury is expected to come up at the current trail where defense lawyers will grill her and are expected to challenge her and Jaramillo creditability.

Hill told the grand …

Zadroga claim provides extreme physical and mental comfort to 9/11 victims

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The 9/11 terrorist attack left the entire world in a state of shock. Thousands of innocent people had lost their lives and had fallen prey to the inhuman terrorist attack. Thus, to help the sufferers of 9/11 World Trade Centre attack, the Government of United States issued the Zadroga claim

The Zadroga claim is available to a wide range of victims that have either lost their family members or have been severely affected with grave injuries in the occurrence of September 9, 2001 terrorist attack.

Zadroga claim provides excellent health care facilities that the sufferer may not be able to afford, as a result of being critically unwell. Not only this, the Zadroga claim also provides financial assistance to the victims, which would help them to reduce the medical burden thus caused.

The sufferer can hire an experienced and talented Zadroga lawyer, who would help the victim in registering the Zadroga claim with the court of law. The Zadroga lawyer would investigate about the required information such as the particular company the claimant was working and also the doctor who is connected with him because of the matter involved. With the existence of Zadroga claim, the sufferers have been able to ring the bells of the court for vital claim. However, the court follows certain rules and regulations for giving claim to well deserved victims.

People file court cases for various reasons; some file it to get rightful compensation while others file it to get the right over the assets and many other things. The Zadroga claim are specially filed in the court of law against the employers who do not alert their workers about the harmful toxic element called Asbestosis. People who are dependent on the Zadroga claim and are asking for the compensation are mostly cleanup workers, emergency workers, police personnel, firefighters and all other ground zero workers who were helping during the 9/11 attack. Besides them, the residents of the World Trade Centre are, people working in and around the attack site, students studying in the locality are also eligible for the Zadroga claim.

All these victims are suffering from several life-taking health conditions such as Upper or Lower Airway disease, Acid Reflux disease, Obstructive Airway diseases such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); or Obstructive Lung Defects such as Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS), occupational asthma (WTC Cough), Sarcoidosis, Asbestosis and Mesothelioma Cancer.

The victims should appoint a Zadroga lawyer, who works on the principle of “no win, no fee” which means that the lawyer would charge the victim only if he wins the case and the lawyer would not ask for the payment if he loses the Zadroga claim.

Thus, with the aid of Zadroga claim the employees can file for ceaseless disability benefits. The Zadroga claim would help the victims battle with their health problems that they are suffering from due to the terrorizing attack on the World Trade Centre.

The commendable feature about the Zadroga claim is that if …

Inconvenient truths and lunatic 2083 fallacies

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By Stanley Collymore

 On Saturday 23 July 2011 the day after the terrorist outrage in Norway the British tabloid newspaper the Sun carried as its banner headline: “Norway’s 9/11” then without a shred of evidence to support its grotesque allegations went on to categorically assert that this act of terrorism was Muslim-related, tied to al-Qaida and linked to Colonel Gaddafi’s loathsome regime in Libya. The biggest selling daily in the UK because regrettably its feeds off smut and mindless propaganda, the sort of thing that unfortunately many Brits insatiably lap up, the agenda of the Sun newspaper, which is part of Rupert Murdoch’s News International that’s currently deeply embroiled in the phone hacking scandal in the UK, hasn’t, it seems, learnt anything from the universally condemned, reprehensible conduct of its now defunct sister newspaper the News of the World, its own unanswered similar, vile behaviour in the same contemptible imbroglio or that of its parent companies News International and News Corp.

But don’t for a minute run away with the mistaken notion that the Sun alone was at fault in deliberately, dishonestly, xenophobically, Islamophobically and in racially-motivated terms mischievously pointing the finger of blame at Muslims for what had taken place in Norway.. By no means was this the case. In fact, all the western media, print as well as the electronic, instantaneously jumped on board the same expedient bandwagon and in the most demonized, completely vicious and comprehensively racist terms imaginable denounced the murderous events in Norway as undeniably the barbaric acts of terrorists and the perpetrators of them as none other than Muslims. And while it’s perfectly allowable and even marginally legitimate, although somewhat misguided, to candidly offer up one’s speculation as a likely possibility for something that has happened even in cases like this one, it’s neither moral nor lawful to do so using one’s unsubstantiated suppositions as cast iron facts to mask one’s prejudices or wilfully create mischief.

This however is precisely what the BBC did; and I’m singling it out and taking it to task here because it’s a public broadcasting corporation which every citizen and resident in the United Kingdom who owns a TV set or recording equipment, whether that person watches or listens to the BBC or not and increasingly because of the entrenched Zionist stance and exceedingly biased propagandistic drivel that the BBC increasingly and perniciously pumps out aren’t any longer doing so, must obligatorily fund through the statutorily enshrined by parliament, BBC licence fee with the unpleasant alternative for those who dissent of a very hefty court fine and immediate imprisonment if they don’t follow suit and do what the majority of the populace is coerced into coughing up for the BBC’s gross mismanagement. In actual fact the BBC is the only broadcaster in the entire United Kingdom which is legally accorded this privilege and as such one would logically have expected that it would endeavour to reflect the diverse views in a balanced, objective …

Public Debt Management System in Govt. Accounting Phenomena

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Public Debt Management is the process of establishing and implementing a policy for managing the government’s debt in order to raise the required amount of funding, track its cost and risk objectives, and to convene any other public debt management goals for which the government has put criteria for developing and maintaining an efficient and liquid market for national securities. Hence,

The Legal framework should clarify the authority to borrow and to issue new debt, invest and undertake transactions on behalf of the Government. The organizational framework should be well specified where mandates and roles are well articulated. Sovereign debt management may span a country’s debt management organization or a fundamental depository. Debt management report should be made publicly which would review preceding year’s activities and provide synopsis of borrowing plans based on budget protuberance.

The Public Accounts comprises of three divisions Debt, Deposits and Reserves and Remittances. The ‘Debt’ Comprises receipt and payments in respect of which government incurs a liability to repay the money received or has a claim to recover the amount paid together with repayments of the former and recoveries of the latter. State General Provident Fund, National Savings Certificate and Postal Savings Certificates etc. are recorded in this division. The ‘Deposit and Reserves’ comprises receipts and payment for which the Government acts as a banker. The government, as the banker, deals with civil deposit, personal deposit and renewal reserve fund etc. The ‘Remittances’ division comprises all adjusting heads for instance, remittances to and from Bangladesh Bank and PWD, Defence, Forest, T and T and Postal etc. Remittances to Bangladesh mission abroad are also included in this division. The form of accounting used by the Government of Bangladesh is based on the cash basis of accounting; that is, recording the transaction at the time when cash is paid or received. Cash basis of Accounting is a traditional basis of govt accounting. There are completely two different sets of published accounts in Bangladesh- the Annual Finance Accounts and the Annual Appropriation Accounts and Annual Finance Accounts: The Finance Accounts reflect total annual receipts and expenditure of the government together with relevant financial statements.

Furthermore, the cash balance of the government is also publicized in this statement where preparation of the Annual Finance Accounts is vested with the C&AG according to Article 4 of the Comptroller and Auditor General (Additional Functions) Act, 1974. Appropriation Accounts: The appropriation is a proportional report viewing comprehensive head-wise/code-wise ultimate budgetary distribution and authentic expenses of different ministries and their subordinate offices with details of variances (if any). According to Article 128 of the Constitution and Rule 4 of the Comptroller and Auditor General (Additional functions) Act 1974, preparation of the Appropriation Accounts by the concerned Accounts Offices, it is reviewed by the Directorates of Civil Audit and PT&T according to concerned portions and then certified by the C&AG with required observations.

The primary accounts are held in reserve where the transactions take place. There are two branches of primary accounts, one kept …

Electrictricity And The Society

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Electrictricity and the Society


In the past people depended on crude mathoeds to provide energy , in the past lighting in houses depended on wax cvandles and kerosine lamps, however the discovery of electricity changed all this and led to the invention of electric bulb lighting. Other changes are evident in the use of resources as sources of power, in the past many industries depended on coal energy to udnertake various functions such as heating but in the present this has changed to extensicve electricity use all over the world. After electricity was discovered,many people  came up with different ways of  using  it in various applications in the society.Many have also people have benefited in running out their daily activties  thus improving their living standards ,others have seen like it is a new begining of their life because they  have encountered great changes.


Electric power was discovered by Michael Farady in 1938,

Electricity and society:

Electricity power is used in running of machines in industries ,many machines depends on electricity for them to function effectively in their operations.Electricity power speeds up processing  activities  in many industries which produce various products in the a result electricity increased the rate of production in the society and also reduced the production costs of varous products, therefore the final price of products reduced and therefore improved the living standards of individuals in the society.

Electricity is widely used in offices in various ways such as in communication process, many office machines used rely on the electric power in their functions.Also ,some of the equipments  used depends on electricity to function as requred ,all this results to proper managment  and a well organised  offices . communication networks were also made possible by the discovery of electricity, today all communication modes depend on electricity and for this reason the society has experienced change in temrs of advanced communication networks.

Electricity power is used in provision of lights in homes  and towns , Electricity lights is more prefered by people because it it is more brighter and convinient compared to other sources of light, in the past people depended on fuel lamps and wax candles as source of light which led to environmental degradation due to increased pollution, electricity discovery therefore reduced the side effects of use of the other sources of light and also provided convinient and broight lighting in the society making it possible to perform various tasks during the night which previously would not have been possible.

Electricity power is used as a source of heat for cooking, electricity cooking is more convineits and efficient than any other source of heat for cooking, also the other sources of energy not environmental friendly but in the case of electricity energy it is usally non pollutant and therefore prefered than any other source of energy, the cooking process therefore was made easier and faster by the discovery of electricity . This greatly brought in some changes to the society ‘s way of life …

CIA Jobs – Working like James Bond

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We oftentimes see in James Bond movies that he is a CIA agent of America. However, less information about its being a possible option for seeking employment. Many assume that it’s all thrills and adventures. Aside from traditional spying games, the American CIA has other job descriptions that maybe, no spy agency has. You should know these before you consider applying in the CIA.

The first Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian agency of the United States government, reporting to the Director of National Intelligence. It is responsible for providing national security intelligence assessment to the United States policymakers. The CIA also engages in covert activities at the request of the President of the United States. It is the replacement of Office of Strategic Services (OSS) formed during World War II.

The National Security act of 1947 established the CIA, affording it “no police or law enforcement functions, either at home or abroad”. When American business interests abroad are threatened by democratically-elected leaders who intend to:

? conduct land reform
? redistribute wealth
? nationalize foreign-owned industries

it is the role of the CIA to mobilize the opposition on behalf of American businesses. They hire, train and work with right-wing government.

The United States has carried on intelligence gathering operations since the time of George Washington but there was no organized effort until President Franklin. Roosevelt established the Office of Strategic Services in1942. Their purpose was to collect and analyze data from foreign nations and relay these findings back to key Executive Branch personnel. It was dismantled in 1945. Seeing the need for organized and coordinated intelligence efforts, President Harry S. Truman ordered the formation of the CIA in 1946.

For now, the agency seeks to hire those with strong desire to serve the nation with honor and integrity. Candidates must posses a bachelor’s degree with minimum grade point average of 3.0 and have excellent verbal and written communication skills. An extensive background check is performed and the prospect must undergo-in-depth medical and psychological testings. They require applicants be 25 to 35 years of age but will waive this requirement under certain circumstances.

Understand what is invited in a CIA career before seeking to join the CIA. The majority of CIA employees work in analytical positions, language positions and science, engineering as well as technology positions. Matching your skills and aptitude to what you’re best suited for may not see you working in the clandestine (where the spies are located) service positions at all so be ready for this possibility. In addition, be prepared to become part of a “family” when you join in the CIA, with expectation to uphold deep loyalty to others.

Some reminders if you want to join in the CIA

? You should have no criminal record.
? You don’t take illegal drugs.
? You don’t gamble.
? You should have a good track record. …